Regulation of DMBT1 via NOD2 and TLR4 in intestinal epithelial cells modulates bacterial recognition and invasion.

Philip Rosenstiel, Christian Sina, Caroline End, Marcus Renner, Stefan Lyer, Andreas Till, Stephan Hellmig, Susanna Nikolaus, Ulrich R Fölsch, Burkhard Helmke, Frank Autschbach, Peter Schirmacher, Petra Kioschis, Mathias Hafner, Annemarie Poustka, Jan Mollenhauer, Stefan Schreiber
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The journal of immunology
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Mucosal epithelial cell layers are constantly exposed to a complex resident microflora. Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) belongs to the group of secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins and is considered to be involved in host defense by pathogen binding. This report describes the regulation and function of DMBT1 in intestinal epithelial cells, which form the primary immunological barrier for invading pathogens. We report that intestinal epithelial cells up-regulate DMBT1 upon proinflammatory stimuli (e.g., TNF-alpha, LPS). We demonstrate that DMBT1 is a target gene for the intracellular pathogen receptor NOD2 via NF-kappaB activation. DMBT1 is strongly up-regulated in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of Crohn''s disease patients with wild-type, but not with mutant NOD2. We show that DMBT1 inhibits cytoinvasion of Salmonella enterica and LPS- and muramyl dipeptide-induced NF-kappaB activation and cytokine secretion in vitro. Thus, DMBT1 may play an important role in the first line of mucosal defense conferring immune exclusion of bacterial cell wall components. Dysregulated intestinal DMBT1 expression due to mutations in the NOD2/CARD15 gene may be part of the complex pathophysiology of barrier dysfunction in Crohn''s disease.