A multi-layer functional genomic analysis to understand noncoding genetic variation in lipids.

Authors

Shweta Ramdas, Jonathan Judd, Sarah E Graham, Stavroula Kanoni, Yuxuan Wang, Ida Surakka, Brandon Wenz, Shoa L Clarke, Alessandra Chesi, Andrew Wells, Konain Fatima Bhatti, Sailaja Vedantam, Thomas W Winkler, Adam E Locke, Eirini Marouli, Greg J M Zajac, Kuan-Han H Wu, Ioanna Ntalla, Qin Hui, Derek Klarin, Austin T Hilliard, Zeyuan Wang, Chao Xue, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Anna Helgadottir, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Hilma Holm, Isleifur Olafsson, Mi Yeong Hwang, Sohee Han, Masato Akiyama, Saori Sakaue, Chikashi Terao, Masahiro Kanai, Wei Zhou, Ben M Brumpton, Humaira Rasheed, Aki S Havulinna, Yogasudha Veturi, Jennifer Allen Pacheco, Elisabeth A Rosenthal, Todd Lingren, QiPing Feng, Iftikhar J Kullo, Akira Narita, Jun Takayama, Hilary C Martin, Karen A Hunt, Bhavi Trivedi, Jeffrey Haessler, Franco Giulianini, Yuki Bradford, Jason E Miller, Archie Campbell, Kuang Lin, Iona Y Millwood, Asif Rasheed, George Hindy, Jessica D Faul, Wei Zhao, David R Weir, Constance Turman, Hongyan Huang, Mariaelisa Graff, Ananyo Choudhury, Dhriti Sengupta, Anubha Mahajan, Michael R Brown, Weihua Zhang, Ketian Yu, Ellen M Schmidt, Anita Pandit, Stefan Gustafsson, Xianyong Yin, Jian’an Luan, Jing-Hua Zhao, Fumihiko Matsuda, Hye-Mi Jang, Kyungheon Yoon, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Achilleas Pitsillides, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Andrew R Wood, Yingji Ji, Zishan Gao, Simon Haworth, Ruth E Mitchell, Jin Fang Chai, Mette Aadahl, Anne A Bjerregaard, Jie Yao, Ani Manichaikul, Wen-Jane Lee, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Helen R Warren, Julia Ramirez, Jette Bork-Jensen, Line L Kårhus, Anuj Goel, Maria Sabater-Lleal, Raymond Noordam, Pala Mauro, Floris Matteo, Aaron F McDaid, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Matthias Wielscher, Stella Trompet, Naveed Sattar, Line T Møllehave, Matthias Munz, Lingyao Zeng, Jianfeng Huang, Bin Yang, Alaitz Poveda, Azra Kurbasic, Sebastian Schönherr, Lukas Forer, Markus Scholz, Tessel E Galesloot, Jonathan P Bradfield, Sanni E Ruotsalainen, E Warwick Daw, Joseph M Zmuda, Jonathan S Mitchell, Christian Fuchsberger, Henry Christensen, Jennifer A Brody, Phuong Le, Mary F Feitosa, Mary K Wojczynski, Daiane Hemerich, Michael Preuss, Massimo Mangino, Paraskevi Christofidou, Niek Verweij, Jan W Benjamins, Jorgen Engmann, Tsao L Noah, Anurag Verma, Roderick C Slieker, Ken Sin Lo, Nuno R Zilhao, Marcus E Kleber, Graciela E Delgado, Shaofeng Huo, Daisuke D Ikeda, Hiroyuki Iha, Jian Yang, Jun Liu, Ayşe Demirkan, Hampton L Leonard, Jonathan Marten, Carina Emmel, Börge Schmidt, Laura J Smyth, Marisa Cañadas-Garre, Chaolong Wang, Masahiro Nakatochi, Andrew Wong, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Xueling Sim, Rui Xia, Alicia Huerta-Chagoya, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Lopez, Valeriya Lyssenko, Suraj S Nongmaithem, Alagu Sankareswaran, Marguerite R Irvin, Christopher Oldmeadow, Han-Na Kim, Seungho Ryu, Paul R H J Timmers, Liubov Arbeeva, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Leslie A Lange, Gauri Prasad, Laura Lorés-Motta, Marc Pauper, Jirong Long, Xiaohui Li, Elizabeth Theusch, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Cassandra N Spracklen, Anu Loukola, Sailalitha Bollepalli, Sophie C Warner, Ya Xing Wang, Wen B Wei, Teresa Nutile, Daniela Ruggiero, Yun Ju Sung, Shufeng Chen, Fangchao Liu, Jingyun Yang, Katherine A Kentistou, Bernhard Banas, Anna Morgan, Karina Meidtner, Lawrence F Bielak, Jennifer A Smith, Prashantha Hebbar, Aliki-Eleni Farmaki, Edith Hofer, Maoxuan Lin, Maria Pina Concas, Simona Vaccargiu, Peter J van der Most, Niina Pitkänen, Brian E Cade, Sander W van der Laan, Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Stefan Weiss, Amy R Bentley, Ayo P Doumatey, Adebowale A Adeyemo, Jong Young Lee, Eva R B Petersen, Aneta A Nielsen, Hyeok Sun Choi, Maria Nethander, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Lorraine Southam, Nigel W Rayner, Carol A Wang, Shih-Yi Lin, Jun-Sing Wang, Christian Couture, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Kjell Nikus, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Henrik Vestergaard, Bertha Hidalgo, Olga Giannakopoulou, Qiuyin Cai, Morgan O Obura, Jessica van Setten, Karen Y He, Hua Tang, Natalie Terzikhan, Jae Hun Shin, Rebecca D Jackson, Alexander P Reiner, Lisa Warsinger Martin, Zhengming Chen, Liming Li, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Joachim Thiery, Joshua C Bis, Lenore J Launer, Huaixing Li, Mike A Nalls, Olli T Raitakari, Sahoko Ichihara, Sarah H Wild, Christopher P Nelson, Harry Campbell, Susanne Jäger, Toru Nabika, Fahd Al-Mulla, Harri Niinikoski, Peter S Braund, Ivana Kolcic, Peter Kovacs, Tota Giardoglou, Tomohiro Katsuya, Dominique de Kleijn, Gert J de Borst, Eung Kweon Kim, Hieab H H Adams, M Arfan Ikram, Xiaofeng Zhu, Folkert W Asselbergs, Adriaan O Kraaijeveld, Joline W J Beulens, Xiao-Ou Shu, Loukianos S Rallidis, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Paul Mitchell, Alex W Hewitt, Mika Kähönen, Louis Pérusse, Claude Bouchard, Anke Tönjes, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Craig E Pennell, Trevor A Mori, Wolfgang Lieb, Andre Franke, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Yoon Shin Cho, Hyejin Lee, Jian-Min Yuan, Woon-Puay Koh, Sang Youl Rhee, Jeong-Taek Woo, Iris M Heid, Klaus J Stark, Martina E Zimmermann, Henry Völzke, Georg Homuth, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman, Ozren Polasek, Gerard Pasterkamp, Imo E Hoefer, Susan Redline, Katja Pahkala, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Harold Snieder, Ginevra Biino, Reinhold Schmidt, Helena Schmidt, Stefania Bandinelli, George Dedoussis, Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj, Patricia A Peyser, Norihiro Kato, Matthias B Schulze, Giorgia Girotto, Carsten A Böger, Bettina Jung, Peter K Joshi, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager, Xiangfeng Lu, Vasiliki Mamakou, Morris Brown, Mark J Caulfield, Patricia B Munroe, Xiuqing Guo, Marina Ciullo, Jost B Jonas, Nilesh J Samani, Jaakko Kaprio, Päivi Pajukanta, Teresa Tusié-Luna, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Linda S Adair, Sonny Augustin Bechayda, H Janaka de Silva, Ananda R Wickremasinghe, Ronald M Krauss, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Wei Zheng, Anneke I den Hollander, Dwaipayan Bharadwaj, Adolfo Correa, James G Wilson, Lars Lind, Chew-Kiat Heng, Amanda E Nelson, Yvonne M Golightly, James F Wilson, Brenda Penninx, Hyung-Lae Kim, John Attia, Rodney J Scott, D C Rao, Donna K Arnett, Mark Walker, Laura J Scott, Heikki A Koistinen, Giriraj R Chandak, Josep M Mercader, Clicerio Gonzalez Villalpando, Lorena Orozco, Myriam Fornage, E Shyong Tai, Rob M van Dam, Terho Lehtimäki, Nish Chaturvedi, Mitsuhiro Yokota, Jianjun Liu, Dermot F Reilly, Amy Jayne McKnight, Frank Kee, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Mark I McCarthy, Colin N A Palmer, Veronique Vitart, Caroline Hayward, Eleanor Simonsick, Cornelia M van Duijn, Zi-Bing Jin, Fan Lu, Haretsugu Hishigaki, Xu Lin, Winfried März, Vilmundur Gudnason, Jean-Claude Tardif, Guillaume Lettre, Leen M T Hart, Petra J M Elders, Daniel J Rader, Scott M Damrauer, Meena Kumari, Mika Kivimaki, Pim van der Harst, Tim D Spector, Ruth J F Loos, Michael A Province, Esteban J Parra, Miguel Cruz, Bruce M Psaty, Ivan Brandslund, Peter P Pramstaller, Charles N Rotimi, Kaare Christensen, Samuli Ripatti, Elisabeth Widén, Hakon Hakonarson, Struan F A Grant, Lambertus Kiemeney, Jacqueline de Graaf, Markus Loeffler, Florian Kronenberg, Dongfeng Gu, Jeanette Erdmann, Heribert Schunkert, Paul W Franks, Allan Linneberg, J Wouter Jukema, Amit V Khera, Minna Männikkö, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Zoltan Kutalik, Cucca Francesco, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Ko Willems van Dijk, Hugh Watkins, David P Strachan, Niels Grarup, Peter Sever, Neil Poulter, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Jerome I Rotter, Thomas M Dantoft, Fredrik Karpe, Matt J Neville, Nicholas J Timpson, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tien-Yin Wong, Chiea Chuen Khor, Hengtong Li, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Annette Peters, Christian Gieger, Andrew T Hattersley, Nancy L Pedersen, Patrik K E Magnusson, Dorret I Boomsma, Eco J C de Geus, L Adrienne Cupples, Joyce B J van Meurs, Arfan Ikram, Mohsen Ghanbari, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Wei Huang, Young Jin Kim, Yasuharu Tabara, Nicholas J Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Eleftheria Zeggini, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Erik Ingelsson, Goncalo Abecasis, John C Chambers, Jaspal S Kooner, Paul S de Vries, Alanna C Morrison, Scott Hazelhurst, Michèle Ramsay, Kari E North, Martha Daviglus, Peter Kraft, Nicholas G Martin, John B Whitfield, Shahid Abbas, Danish Saleheen, Robin G Walters, Michael V Holmes, Corri Black, Blair H Smith, Aris Baras, Anne E Justice, Julie E Buring, Paul M Ridker, Daniel I Chasman, Charles Kooperberg, Gen Tamiya, Masayuki Yamamoto, David A van Heel, Richard C Trembath, Wei-Qi Wei, Gail P Jarvik, Bahram Namjou, M Geoffrey Hayes, Marylyn D Ritchie, Pekka Jousilahti, Veikko Salomaa, Kristian Hveem, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Michiaki Kubo, Yoichiro Kamatani, Yukinori Okada, Yoshinori Murakami, Bong-Jo Kim, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Jifeng Zhang, Y Eugene Chen, Yuk-Lam Ho, Julie A Lynch, Philip S Tsao, Kyong-Mi Chang, Kelly Cho, Christopher J O’Donnell, John M Gaziano, Peter Wilson, Karen L Mohlke, Timothy M Frayling, Joel N Hirschhorn, Sekar Kathiresan, Michael Boehnke, – Struan Grant, Pradeep Natarajan, Yan V Sun, Andrew P Morris, Panos Deloukas, Gina Peloso, Themistocles L Assimes, Cristen J Willer, Xiang Zhu, Christopher D Brown

Year of publication

2022

Journal

AM J HUM GENET

Volume

109

Issue

8

ISSN

0002-9297

Impact factor

11.043

Abstract

A major challenge of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) is to translate phenotypic associations into biological insights. Here, we integrate a large GWAS on blood lipids involving 1.6 million individuals from five ancestries with a wide array of functional genomic datasets to discover regulatory mechanisms underlying lipid associations. We first prioritize lipid-associated genes with expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) colocalizations and then add chromatin interaction data to narrow the search for functional genes. Polygenic enrichment analysis across 697 annotations from a host of tissues and cell types confirms the central role of the liver in lipid levels and highlights the selective enrichment of adipose-specific chromatin marks in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Overlapping transcription factor (TF) binding sites with lipid-associated loci identifies TFs relevant in lipid biology. In addition, we present an integrative framework to prioritize causal variants at GWAS loci, producing a comprehensive list of candidate causal genes and variants with multiple layers of functional evidence. We highlight two of the prioritized genes, CREBRF and RRBP1, which show convergent evidence across functional datasets supporting their roles in lipid biology.