Bacterial sensing via neuronal Nod2 regulates appetite and body temperature.

Authors

Ilana Gabanyi, Gabriel Lepousez, Richard Wheeler, Alba Vieites-Prado, Antoine Nissant, Sébastien Wagner, Carine Moigneu, Sophie Dulauroy, Samia Hicham, Bernadette Polomack, Florine Verny, Philip Rosenstiel, Nicolas Renier, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Gérard Eberl, Pierre-Marie Lledo

Year of publication

2022

Journal

SCIENCE

Volume

376

Issue

6590

ISSN

0036-8075

Impact factor

56.9

Abstract

Gut bacteria influence brain functions and metabolism. We investigated whether this influence can be mediated by direct sensing of bacterial cell wall components by brain neurons. In mice, we found that bacterial peptidoglycan plays a major role in mediating gut-brain communication via the Nod2 receptor. Peptidoglycan-derived muropeptides reach the brain and alter the activity of a subset of brain neurons that express Nod2. Activation of Nod2 in hypothalamic inhibitory neurons is essential for proper appetite and body temperature control, primarily in females. This study identifies a microbe-sensing mechanism that regulates feeding behavior and host metabolism.