Efficacy, T cell activation and antibody responses in accelerated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite chemoprophylaxis vaccine regimens.


Javier Ibanez, Rolf Fendel, Freia-Raphaella Lorenz, Patricia Granados-Bayon, Sina Brückner, Meral Esen, Mihály Sulyok, Zita Sulyok, Steffen Borrmann, Petra Bacher, Alexander Scheffold, Stephen L Hoffman, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller

Year of publication



NPJ Vaccines







Impact factor



Repeated direct venous inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) together with antimalarial chemoprophylaxis (PfSPZ-CVac) is the most potent way to induce sterile immunity against P. falciparum infection in malaria-naive volunteers. However, established schedules are complex and long. Here, we tested two accelerated three-dose schedules (28- and 10-day regimen) assessing efficacy by controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) against placebo, comparing vaccine-specific T cell and antibody responses by antigen-reactive T cell enrichment (ARTE) and protein microarray, respectively. Both regimens were similarly efficacious (67 and 63% vaccine efficacy) but different in the induction of vaccine-specific T cells and antibodies. The 10-day regimen resulted in higher numbers of antigen-specific CD4+ effector memory pro-inflammatory T cells and a broader antibody response compared with the 28-day regimen. Usually in nature, P. falciparum liver stage lasts about 6.5 days. The short vaccination-interval of the 10-day regimen prolongs the time of continuous exposure to liver-stage parasites, which may explain the stronger response. Besides dose and number of vaccinations, duration of liver-stage exposure is a factor to optimize PfSPZ-CVac immunogenicity.