LYSET/TMEM251- a novel key component of the mannose-6-phosphate pathway.


Wenjie Qiao, Christopher M Richards, Sabrina Jabs

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​​Degradation of macromolecules delivered to lysosomes by processes such as autophagy or endocytosis is crucial for cellular function. Lysosomes require more than 60 soluble hydrolases in order to catabolize such macromolecules. These soluble hydrolases are tagged with mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) moieties in sequential reactions by the Golgi-resident GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase complex and NAGPA/UCE/uncovering enzyme (N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphodiester alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase), which allows their delivery to endosomal/lysosomal compartments through trafficking mediated by cation-dependent and -independent mannose-6-phosphate receptors (MPRs). We and others recently identified TMEM251 as a novel regulator of the M6P pathway via independent genome-wide genetic screening strategies. We renamed TMEM251 to LYSET (lysosomal enzyme trafficking factor) to establish nomenclature reflective to this gene’s function. LYSET is a Golgi-localized transmembrane protein important for the retention of the GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase complex in the Golgi-apparatus. The current understanding of LYSET’s importance regarding human biology is 3-fold: 1) highly pathogenic viruses that depend on lysosomal hydrolase activity require LYSET for infection. 2) The presence of LYSET is critical for cancer cell proliferation in nutrient-deprived environments in which extracellular proteins must be catabolized. 3) Inherited pathogenic alleles of LYSET can cause a severe inherited disease which resembles GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase deficiency (i.e., mucolipidosis type II).