Anti-glycoprotein 2 (anti-GP2) IgA and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies to serine proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA): antibodies to predict severe disease, poor survival and cholangiocarcinoma in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Ewa Wunsch, Gary L Norman, Malgorzata Milkiewicz, Marcin Krawczyk, Chelsea Bentow, Zakera Shums, Michael Mahler, Steffi Lopens, Dirk Reinhold, Andre Franke, Christoph Schramm, Dirk Roggenbuck, Piotr Milkiewicz
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Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
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BACKGROUND:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is associated with progressive liver disease and cholangiocarcinoma. Although risk stratification is crucial for making clinical decisions, it is hindered by a scarcity of proven prognostic markers. AIMS:To assess the value of novel anti-glycoprotein 2 (anti-GP2) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies to serine proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) in combination with PSC-specific clinical and laboratory markers as predictors of quality of life, disease severity, and cholangiocarcinoma in two large, independent cohorts of PSC patients METHODS: Discovery (338 Polish patients) and validation (178 German patients) cohorts with PSC were evaluated. Anti-GP2 (isoforms 1/4) was detected by ELISAs and PR3-ANCA by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Clinical and laboratory data were collected and analysed. The outcome was defined as liver transplantation-free survival and occurrence of cholangiocarcinoma during follow-up. RESULTS:In the discovery group, anti-GP21/4 IgA and PR3-ANCA were associated with liver dysfunction, anti-GP21/4 IgA with risk scores for PSC and anti-GP24 IgA with cirrhosis. All cholangiocarcinoma patients were positive for PR3-ANCA and/or anti-GP24 IgA. The association between anti-GP2 IgA and liver biochemistry, risk scores, cirrhosis, impaired survival, and cholangiocarcinoma was confirmed in the validation cohort. Cox proportional-hazards regression indicated anti-GP21 IgA as an independent variable of poor outcome in both study cohorts. Analysis of the combined data showed that anti-GP24 IgA and PR3-ANCA were independent predictors for cholangiocarcinoma, while anti-GP21 IgA and PR3-ANCA were indicators for poor survival. CONCLUSIONS:Anti-GP2 and PR3-ANCA are prognostic antibodies in PSC as they identify patients at risk of severe disease, poor survival and biliary cancer.