Duodenal lymphogram as a complementary tool in the diagnosis of celiac disease in adults.

Beatriz Burgueño Gómez, Celia Escudero-Hernández, Rodrigo de Pedro, Enrique Montalvillo, David Bernardo, Elena García-Lagarto, José Antonio Garrote Adrados, Eduardo Arranz Sanz, Luis Fernández Salazar
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Revista española de enfermedades digestivas
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INTRODUCTION:celiac disease (CD) patients have a specific pattern of lymphocytic infiltrate in the duodenal mucosa. Flow cytometry is a complementary tool for the diagnosis of CD, which allows the quantification and characterization of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) by what is commonly called a lymphogram. Here we describe our experience with this technique in the diagnosis of CD in adult patients. METHODS:lymphograms from 157 patients performed in our center between 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Fourteen patients had a previous diagnosis of CD and followed a gluten-free diet (GFD), 21 had a new diagnosis of CD and the remaining were considered as non-celiac. The association of the lymphogram results (total IELs, CD3- lymphocytes and TcRγδ lymphocytes) with the CD diagnosis, compliance with the GFD, time since diagnosis and IgA anti-TG2 titer were determined. RESULTS:the area under the ROC curve of TcRγδ lymphocytes for CD patients varied between 0.86 and 0.86. The percentage of TcRγδ lymphocytes in GFD-treated patients was lower; 12 (8.5) vs 20.5 (8.7), p = 0.0153. However, it remained high compared to non-CD; 12 (8.5) vs 6.7 (6), p = 0.135. The time since diagnosis and IgA anti-TG2 titer correlated with the lymphogram results. Helicobacter pylori infection and treatment with angiotensin receptor antagonist 2 (ARA2) were associated with differences in the lymphogram results in patients without CD. CONCLUSIONS:the duodenal lymphogram is a reliable complementary tool in adults for the diagnosis of CD. However, compliance and duration of the GFD and other factors may condition its diagnostic capacity.