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Shock : molecular, cellular, and systemic pathobiological aspects and therapeutic approaches : the official journal of the Shock Society, the European Shock Society, the Brazilian Shock Society, the International Federation of Shock Societies
Recent studies have demonstrated gender differences in the immune response following hemorrhagic shock with an enhanced immune function and lower mortality following subsequent sepsis in females. Early interleukin-10 (IL-10) treatment has been shown to have beneficial effects on the depressed immune function in males, but not in females following shock. However, it remains unclear if the observed gender-related effect of IL-10 treatment results in an advantage following subsequent polymicrobial sepsis. To study this, male and female CBA/J mice (age 2-3 months) were subjected to hemorrhage (35 +/- 5 mmHg for 90 min and fluid resuscitation). At resuscitation, each received either 10 microg of recombinant murine IL-10 or placebo i.p.. At 48 h after resuscitation, either peritoneal macrophages (pMphi) and plasma were harvested, or polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Following CLP, either survival over 10 days was measured, or pMphi and plasma were harvested 4 h after CLP to assess TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release of pMphi and plasma levels of IL-10, free testosteron, and 17-beta estradiol. Early IL-10 treatment restored depressed proinflammatory immune response in males (TNF-alpha and PGE2), which was associated with an enhanced survival (P < 0.05) following subsequent sepsis as compared with placebo-treated mice (8/20 and 1/20, respectively). In contrast, the immune response and survival in females receiving IL-10 was not significantly changed, although females treated with IL-10 had a trend towards higher mortality (7/15 and 2/15, respectively; P = 0.08). Thus, early IL-10 anti-inflammatory treatment following hemorrhage has potential beneficial effects only in males associated with enhanced survival following subsequent sepsis.