Health- and disease-associated species clusters in complex natural biofilms determine the innate immune response in oral epithelial cells during biofilm maturation.

Daniela Langfeldt, Sven C Neulinger, Meike Stiesch, Nico Stumpp, Corinna Bang, Ruth A Schmitz, Jörg Eberhard
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Journal title abbreviated:
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
Journal title long:
FEMS microbiology letters
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The aim of the present study was to verify our hypothesis concerning the differential induction of various antimicrobial and immunomodulatory responses in oral epithelial cells by diverse bacterial species clusters. For this purpose, oral biofilms between 1 and 14 days of maturation (36 volunteers) were co-incubated with gingival epithelial cells. Subsequently, human β-defensin (hBD)-2, hBD-3, LL-37, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 mRNA expression profiles were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The correlation between bacterial species and the host innate immune response was determined by relating these results to existing 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis by amplicon sequencing (Langfeldt et al. 2014. PLoS One 9: e87449). Data were analysed by multiple factor analysis. Transcription of hBD-2 and hBD-3 was significantly associated with the abundance of species of the Prevotella cluster and the absence of species of the Streptococcus cluster. IL-1β, -6, -8 and -10 mRNA syntheses were significant correlated with Leptotrichia species [Leptotrichia 302H02 (0.448, P < 0.0001), Leptotrichia nbw822e09c1 (0.214, P = 0.008) and Leptotrichia wadei (0.218, P = 0.007)] of the Prevotella cluster. In the third dimension IL-10 and members of the Prevotella cluster were negatively correlated, whereas hBD-3 and IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were positive correlated to axis 3, like members of the Proteobacteria cluster. In conclusion, distinct species of health- and disease-associated bacterial clusters induce antibacterial or immunomodulatory reactions in oral epithelial cells during early stages of bacteria-host interactions.