Influence of polymorphisms in the NOD1/CARD4 and NOD2/CARD15 genes on the clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection.

Philip Rosenstiel, Stephan Hellmig, Jochen Hampe, Stefan Ott, Andreas Till, Wolfgang Fischbach, Hany Sahly, Ralph Lucius, Ulrich R Fölsch, Dana Philpott, Stefan Schreiber
Year of publication:
Journal title abbreviated:
Cell. Microbiol.
Journal title long:
Cellular microbiology
Impact factor:
Host immune response influences the clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection leading to ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A genetic risk profile for gastric cancer has been identified, but genetic susceptibility to develop MALT lymphoma is still unclear. We investigated the role of NOD1 and NOD2 as intracellular recognition molecules for pathogen-associated molecules in H. pylori infection in vitro and analysed the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms on susceptibility to ulcer disease and MALT lymphoma. Expression of NOD1 and NOD2 significantly sensitized HEK293 cells to H. pylori-induced NF-kappaB activation in a cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-dependent manner. In cells carrying the Crohn-associated NOD2 variant R702W the NF-kappaB response was significantly diminished. NOD1/NOD2 expression levels were induced in the gastric epithelium in H. pylori-positive patients. No mutations were found to be associated with gastritis or gastric ulcer development. However, the R702W mutation in the NOD2/CARD15 gene was significantly associated with gastric lymphoma. Carrier of the rare allele T had a more than doubled risk to develop lymphoma than controls [odds ratio (OR): 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-4.6; P < 0.044]. H. pylori-induced upregulation of NOD1 and NOD2 in vivo may play a critical role in the recognition of this common pathogen. A missense mutation in the leucine-rich region of CARD15 is associated with gastric lymphoma.