Interpreting whole genome and exome sequencing data of individual gastric cancer samples.

Daniela Esser, Niklas Holze, Jochen Haag, Stefan Schreiber, Sandra Krüger, Viktoria Warneke, Philip Rosenstiel, Christoph Röcken
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BMC genomics
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Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In order to understand the genetic background, we sequenced the whole exome and the whole genome of one microsatellite stable as well as one microsatellite unstable tumor and the matched healthy tissue on two different NGS platforms. We here aimed to provide a comparative approach for individual clinical tumor sequencing and annotation using different sequencing technologies and mutation calling algorithms.We applied a population-based whole genome resource as a novel pathway-based filter for interpretation of genomic alterations from single nucleotide variations (SNV), indels, and large structural variations. In addition to a comparison with tumor genome database resources and a filtering approach using data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we performed pyrosequencing analysis and immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 428 independent gastric cancer cases.We here provide an example comparing the usefulness and potential pitfalls of different technologies for a clinical interpretation of genomic sequence data of individual gastric cancer samples. Using different filtering approaches, we identified a multitude of novel potentially damaging mutations and could show a validated association between a mutation in GNAS and gastric cancer.