Lysosomal enzyme trafficking factor LYSET enables nutritional usage of extracellular proteins.

Catarina Pechincha, Sven Groessl, Robert Kalis, Melanie de Almeida, Andrea Zanotti, Marten Wittmann, Martin Schneider, Rafael P de Campos, Sarah Rieser, Marlene Brandstetter, Alexander Schleiffer, Karin Müller-Decker, Dominic Helm, Sabrina Jabs, David Haselbach, Marius K Lemberg, Johannes Zuber, Wilhelm Palm
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Science : a weekly journal devoted to the advancement of science / American Association for the Advancement of Science
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Mammalian cells can generate amino acids through macropinocytosis and lysosomal breakdown of extracellular proteins, which is exploited by cancer cells to grow in nutrient-poor tumors. Here, through genetic screens in defined nutrient conditions we characterized LYSET, a transmembrane protein (TMEM251) selectively required when cells consume extracellular proteins. LYSET was found to associate in the Golgi with GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase, which targets catabolic enzymes to lysosomes through mannose-6-phosphate modification. Without LYSET, GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase was unstable owing to a hydrophilic transmembrane domain. Consequently, LYSET-deficient cells were depleted of lysosomal enzymes and impaired in turnover of macropinocytic and autophagic cargoes. Thus, LYSET represents a core component of the lysosomal enzyme trafficking pathway, underlies the pathomechanism for hereditary lysosomal storage disorders, and may represent a target to suppress metabolic adaptations in cancer.