MRI-determined total volumes of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal and trunk adipose tissue are differentially and sex-dependently associated with patterns of estimated usual nutrient intake in a northern German population.

Karina Fischer, Daniela Moewes, Manja Koch, Hans-Peter Müller, Gunnar Jacobs, Jan Kassubek, Wolfgang Lieb, Ute Nöthlings
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The American journal of clinical nutrition : a publication of the American Society for Nutrition, Inc
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VAT may be particularly associated with sex-specific interplays of nutrients found in animal products and fiber, whereas SAAT and STRAT are associated with total energy intake.AT volumes were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Nutrient intake was estimated by a 112-item food-frequency questionnaire linked to the German Food Code and Nutrient Database. Exploratory nutrient patterns were derived by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS) of 87 nutrients. Cross-sectional associations between nutrient patterns, single nutrients, or total energy intake and AT compartments were analyzed by multiple linear regression.We investigated whether and to what extent usual patterns of nutrient intake are associated with VAT, SAAT, and STRAT compared with nondietary predictors in northern German adults (n = 583).Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal (SAAT) and trunk (STRAT) adipose tissue (AT) have been suggested to be differentially influenced by diet.Next to sex and age, respectively, which were important nondietary predictors and accounted for more of the variation in VAT (∼13% and ∼4%) than in SAAT or STRAT (both 4-7% and <1%), variation in VAT (16.8% or 17.6%) was explained to a greater extent by 9 or 2 nutrient patterns derived by principal components analysis or partial least-squares regression, respectively, than was variation in SAAT (10.6% or 8.2%) or STRAT (11.5% or 8.6%). Whereas VAT (16.6%) was primarily explained by nutrient quality, SAAT (6.9%) and STRAT (7.4%) were mainly explained by total energy intake. VAT was positively associated with nutrients characteristic of animal (except for dairy) products, including arachidonic acid (standardized β: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.34; P < 0.0001), but negatively with dietary fiber, including polypentoses (standardized β: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.09; P < 0.0001), and nutrients found in milk. The direction and strength of many associations, however, depended strongly on sex and adjustment for BMI.