Paleoproteomic study of the Iceman's brain tissue.

Authors:
Frank Maixner, Thorsten Overath, Dennis Linke, Marek Janko, Gea Guerriero, Bart H J van den Berg, Bjoern Stade, Petra Leidinger, Christina Backes, Marta Jaremek, Benny Kneissl, Benjamin Meder, Andre Franke, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Eckart Meese, Andreas Schwarz, Andreas Tholey, Albert Zink, Andreas Keller
Year of publication:
2013
Volume:
70
Issue:
19
Issn:
1420-682X
Journal title abbreviated:
CELL MOL LIFE SCI
Journal title long:
Cellular and molecular life sciences
Impact factor:
5.694
Abstract:
The Tyrolean Iceman, a Copper-age ice mummy, is one of the best-studied human individuals. While the genome of the Iceman has largely been decoded, tissue-specific proteomes have not yet been investigated. We studied the proteome of two distinct brain samples using gel-based and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies together with a multiple-databases and -search algorithms-driven data-analysis approach. Thereby, we identified a total of 502 different proteins. Of these, 41 proteins are known to be highly abundant in brain tissue and 9 are even specifically expressed in the brain. Furthermore, we found 10 proteins related to blood and coagulation. An enrichment analysis revealed a significant accumulation of proteins related to stress response and wound healing. Together with atomic force microscope scans, indicating clustered blood cells, our data reopens former discussions about a possible injury of the Iceman''s head near the site where the tissue samples have been extracted.