Phenotype, penetrance, and treatment of 133 CTLA-4-insufficient individuals.

Authors:
Charlotte Schwab, Annemarie Gabrysch, Peter Olbrich, Virginia Patiño, Klaus Warnatz, Daniel Wolff, Akihiro Hoshino, Masao Kobayashi, Kohsuke Imai, Masatoshi Takagi, Ingunn Dybedal, Jamanda A Haddock, David Sansom, Jose M Lucena, Maximilian Seidl, Annette Schmitt-Gräff, Veronika Reiser, Florian Emmerich, Natalie Frede, Alla Bulashevska, Ulrich Salzer, Desirée Schubert, Seiichi Hayakawa, Satoshi Okada, Maria Kanariou, Zeynep Yesim Kucuk, Hugo Chapdelaine, Lenka Petruzelkova, Zdenek Sumnik, Anna Sediva, Mary Slatter, Peter D Arkwright, Andrew Cant, Hanns-Martin Lorenz, Thomas Giese, Vassilios Lougaris, Alessandro Plebani, Christina Price, Kathleen E Sullivan, Michel Moutschen, Jiri Litzman, Tomas Freiberger, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mike Recher, Michael H Albert, Fabian Hauck, Suranjith Seneviratne, Jana Pachlopnik Schmid, Antonios Kolios, Gary Unglik, Christian Klemann, Carsten Speckmann, Stephan Ehl, Alan Leichtner, Richard Blumberg, Andre Franke, Scott Snapper, Sebastian Zeissig, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Lisa Giulino-Roth, Olivier Elemento, Gregor Dückers, Tim Niehues, Eva Fronkova, Veronika Kanderová, Craig D Platt, Janet Chou, Talal Chatila, Raif Geha, Elizabeth McDermott, Su Bunn, Monika Kurzai, Ansgar Schulz, Laia Alsina, Ferran Casals, Angela Deyà-Martinez, Sophie Hambleton, Hirokazu Kanegane, Kjetil Taskén, Olaf Neth, Bodo Grimbacher
Year of publication:
2018
Volume:
-
Issue:
-
Issn:
0091-6749
Journal title abbreviated:
J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUN
Journal title long:
Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
Impact factor:
10.228
Abstract:
Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator. Heterozygous CTLA4 germline mutations can cause a complex immune dysregulation syndrome in humans.To characterize the penetrance, the clinical features and the best treatment options in 133 CTLA4 mutation carriers.Genetics, clinical features, laboratory values, and outcome of treatment options were assessed in a worldwide cohort of CTLA4 mutation carriers.We identified 133 individuals from 54 unrelated families carrying 45 different heterozygous CTLA4 mutations, including 28 previously undescribed mutations. Ninety mutation carriers were considered affected, suggesting the clinical penetrance of at least 67%; median age of onset was 11 years, and mortality rate within affected mutation carriers was 16% (n=15). Main clinical manifestations included hypogammaglobulinemia (84%), lymphoproliferation (73%), autoimmune cytopenia (62%), respiratory- (68%), gastrointestinal- (59%), or neurological features (29%). Eight affected mutation carriers developed lymphoma, three gastric cancer. An EBV association was found in six malignancies. CTLA4 mutations were associated with lymphopenia and decreased T-, B-, and NK-cell counts. Successful targeted therapies included the application of CTLA-4-fusion-proteins, mTOR-inhibitors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. EBV reactivation occurred in two affected mutation carriers under immunosuppression.Affected mutation carriers with CTLA-4 insufficiency may present in any medical specialty. Family members should be counseled, as disease manifestation may occur as late as age 50. EBV- and CMV-associated complications must be closely monitored. Treatment interventions should be coordinated in clinical trials.This large cohort of affected CTLA4 mutation carriers gives first insights into different possible treatment options and presents available clinical information on treatment response and survival. With this knowledge, affected mutation carriers will benefit from an individualized management.