TSPAN6 is a suppressor of Ras-driven cancer.

Patrick O Humbert, Tamara Zoranovic Pryjda, Blanka Pranjic, Andrew Farrell, Kohei Fujikura, Ricardo de Matos Simoes, Rezaul Karim, Ivona Kozieradzki, Shane J F Cronin, G Gregory Neely, Thomas F Meyer, Astrid Hagelkruys, Helena E Richardson, Josef M Penninger
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Oncogenic mutations in the small GTPase RAS contribute to ~30% of human cancers. In a Drosophila genetic screen, we identified novel and evolutionary conserved cancer genes that affect Ras-driven tumorigenesis and metastasis in Drosophila including confirmation of the tetraspanin Tsp29Fb. However, it was not known whether the mammalian Tsp29Fb orthologue, TSPAN6, has any role in RAS-driven human epithelial tumors. Here we show that TSPAN6 suppressed tumor growth and metastatic dissemination of human RAS activating mutant pancreatic cancer xenografts. Whole-body knockout as well as tumor cell autonomous inactivation using floxed alleles of Tspan6 in mice enhanced Kras<sup>G12D</sup>-driven lung tumor initiation and malignant progression. Mechanistically, TSPAN6 binds to the EGFR and blocks EGFR-induced RAS activation. Moreover, we show that inactivation of TSPAN6 induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibits cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Finally, low TSPAN6 expression correlates with poor prognosis of patients with lung and pancreatic cancers with mesenchymal morphology. Our results uncover TSPAN6 as a novel tumor suppressor receptor that controls epithelial cell identify and restrains RAS-driven epithelial cancer.